Reflexión sobre el texto de Freud: El malestar en la Cultura

Sebastian Ordenes

Todo parte, de la felicidad, he ahí, el origen de los problemas de la humanidad, de los problemas sociales, en la búsqueda de la anhelad felicidad, es irónico, cuanto más se busca, más se sufre. La humanidad prefiere adopta la actitud de “evitar el dolor”, más que buscar el placer, talvez incluso, sin estar consiente de que la felicidad no se puede alcanzar, el hecho es que los individuos prefieren hacer cosas que no le provoquen sufrimiento, independiente que no les de placer, a hacer cosas que le den placer, pero con un alto riesgo de caer en el dolor, en ocasiones, lo llamaría frustración, al no poder realizar el objetivo final (felicidad, placer, goce ilimitado).

 

Los placeres salvajes, pueden ser los que más felicidad nos entregan, pero al ser de carácter más instintivo (animal) se encuentran penalizados por la sociedad, por la cultura actual en la urbe, por lo que se desata en niveles controlado, que entrega menos grados de placer, es aquí donde aparece el amor sexual, en donde creo ciertamente, aquí radican los mayores placeres de esta tierra, para el hombre. Ahora, por lo propenso que es el amar, es decir, la barrea entre la felicidad y el dolor que puede provocar este acto, es tan delgada, se opta por hacerlo más efímero, queriendo más el echo, el acto, que a la persona que se ama, inhibiendo también la finalidad del amar, el sexo, convirtiendo el sexo en un acto más del amar, que como finalidad, ramificando el amar, haciéndolo mas útil para la comunidad que para el individuo, apareciendo el amor en la amistad, y otro tipos de relaciones, usando la energía del amor, en el desarrollo social.

 

Pues esta sociedad, no hace más que regular la vida de los hombres, así como anterior mente nombraba la penalización de los instintos salvaje vetados, rige todos los actos del individuo, esa es la cultura, la cultura establecida en la urbe,  desde que naces, comienzas a ser adoctrinado para adaptarte a la sociedad, proceso que en primera instancia se realiza por los padres, donde se aprende el lenguaje, la comunicación con otros individuos, herramienta fundamenta para la cohesión social, después se sigue en los colegios comúnmente, y así, en la relación con los otros, hoy en día uno puede ver como los niños pasan por todo este proceso de adaptación, como construyen los parámetros de su mente, el macho satisfacer en algo su placer con la hembra y la hembra encontrara cierta seguridad, y al final esta estructura bien establecida que deja escrito que se puede hacer y que no, no es mas que para protegerse de nosotros mismos.

 

Cuando ya se esta claro que la felicidad no es algo a lo que se puede llegar, se han construido todo este mecanismo social, para disminuir en lo posible el sufrimiento, regular la relaciones, y encontrar placeres, se entiende que como comunidad se es mas fuerte que como individuo solo, por esto se escriben las “leyes” que la comunidad acepta, para limitar al individuo, y es este el punto máximo de todo el problema, nuestra constante tendencia a la destrucción.

Una sociedad, que más bien es una prisión, la “jaula de hierro”, pero porque lo hemos querido así, porque no conocemos otra forma de vivir, la sociedad debe reprimir el placer por la violencia, por una cuestión de sana convivencia entre unos y otros, se establecen los cánones de lo que es bueno y lo que es malo, y se origina el sentido de culpabilidad, sentirte culpable, que vetara todos tus actos malos, es un proceso psicológico, a veces no será necesario ni siquiera hacer algo malo, con solo pensarlo ya te sentirás culpable, el miedo a sentirte excluido de la sociedad, se pueden realizar actos buenos que incluso causen sufrimiento en ves de placer, mas este miedo al rechazo es mas fuerte, no se es libre, pero hay menos peligro en esta prisión, en conceptos sicoanalistas, es el súper-yo el que se encarga de ser esta conciencia que esta constantemente recordando que es bueno y malo, para el sentido de culpabilidad.

 

Sin embargo, el deseo, el pacer por la destrucción, por la violencia, es más fuerte, he incluso a veces puede encontrar justificaciones, para que el acto violento tenga un carácter justo por la sociedad, como podría ser hoy, la defensa que realiza un padre al ver a su hija que esta siendo victima de una violación, el padre puede incluso matar al violador, y aunque legalmente sea penalizado, la sociedad puede comprenderlo e incluso aceptarlo. El echo, es que esta, en la naturaleza del hombre, la violencia, y es tan fuerte este instinto, que a la sociedad no le a quedad más que aceptarlo y canalizarlo de la mejor manera posible para ella, aunque exista el caso de las religiones, que se niegan a esto (la cristiana por ejemplo) e intenta fomentar un concepto de amor entre unos y otros, y que el hombre nace “bueno”, etc., aunque la historia demuestra lo contrario, es así como podemos encontrar el sentir de nacionalidad, que busca focalizar esa violencia contra un potencial enemigo de la patria, pero llevando esto a un echo más actual y puntual, podemos encontrar esta actitud reflejada en los equipos de fútbol, y más fuertemente, en los seguidores de estos equipos.

 

Un partido de fútbol se convierte prácticamente en un campo de batalla, utiliza la pasión, la fuerza y violencia, no solo de los jugadores, sino de todo aquel que tome partido de uno de los bandos, desencadenando una guerra, el otro es el enemigo y debe ser derrotado, el placer de la batalla, el pleno goce del vencedor, y aun más violencia acumulada para el próximo encuentro por parte del perdedor; toda esa energía se acumula, y es que estamos destinados a destruirnos, y ni siquiera la mejor sociedad puede ir contra ello, seguirán habiendo guerras, porque toda esa ira reprimida, cada cierto tiempo debe salir a flote, no importa cuanto tienten reprimir ese instinto salvaje, sigue siendo mas fuerte que cualquier barrera.

 

Así, la felicidad del individuo esta crucificada, en pos de una vida estable en la sociedad ¿Por cuánto tiempo?

 

“…a mi juicio, el destino de la especie humana será decidido por las circunstancias de si -y hasta qué punto- el desarrollo cultural logrará hacer frente a las perturbaciones de la vida colectiva emanadas del instinto de agresión y de autodestrucción…”[1]   

 



[1] Sigmund Freud: El malestar en la Cultura. Pág. 58

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